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Biological Loa Learning Outcomes Note

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Biological LOA

Key words


GLO 1 - Outline principles that define the biological level of analysis. GLO 2 - Explain how principles that define the biological level of analysis may be demonstrated in research.
Animal insight unethical similar DNA biological behaviour invasive

Animal research can provide insight into human behaviour. o unethical to do this test on humans o assumption - respond in a similar way o Similar DNA o Martinez & Kesner o Rosenweig & Bennett Biological correlates of behaviour exist. o physiological origins of behaviour - altered impact and change our behaviour. o Clive Wearing o Patient HM o Young et al The active brain can be studied scientifically and non-invasively. o Our active brain can be viewed and monitored through non-invasive BIT, meaning the brain will be returned to its natural state. o Newcomber o Baugartner

GLO 3 - Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the b iological level of analysis. Explain method Laboratory experiment

Quasi experiment

Field experiment

Case study

Twin/Adoption studies (correlational studies)

Artificial environment manipulates the IV controls variables examine the validity of a hypothesis
 determine the efficacy of something previously untried
 IV naturally occurring
 Record possible effects of a variable(IV) on another (DV)
 Natural environment
 May be confounding variables
 Manipulates the independent variable
 In-depth and detailed
 individual or a small group
 Unusual behaviour
 naturally occurring phenomenon
 biological studies to test for relationships between variables
 There are two specific methods


cause-effect relationships objective control accuracy replication -> increase reliability confounding variables

Key Studies
 Martinez &

 ecological validity- natural behaviour & environment
 Very little bias from demand characteristics
 more ecological validity than laboratory experiments
 fewer demand characteristics

 Maguire et al

Richly detailed information High ecological validity Ethics Unknown area

 A possible negative or positive relationship between two variables

 Kasamatsu &

Clive Wearing HM

Boucharcl Heston

GLO 4 - Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the biological level of analysis. Consent (informed, parental)


Inform - the nature of the research study (briefing). know what the research is about what will happen in the study consider participation children - parental consent Inform - the result

Biological LOA

Key words


Right to withdraw (person and data) Protection from harm (emotional, psychological, physiological)

assure -have not been harmed (deception) any moment in the researcher process withdraw data if not satisfied Should suffer no physical or psychological harm avoid invasion of privacy in convert observational studies unless it is justified

P&B 1 - Explain one study related to localization of function in the brain.

 Localisation refers to the specific structures of the brain have specific functions or roles
 Clive Wearing o Memory stored in different structures o Hippocampus damaged → episodic and sematic memory lost o Most of the structures not damaged → functions for those structures not affected
 Maguire et al (2000) o Driving taxi requires spatial navigation skills o Posterior hippocampus responsible for spatial navigation skills o Only hippocampus volume increased
 Conclusion o Clive Wearing is an evidence of the theory of localization because his case demonstrated different structures in the brain play different roles. For example, the hippocampus is responsible for episodic and semantic memory, the cerebellum is responsible for procedure memory and the amygdala is responsible for emotional memory. o Maguire et al (2000) is an evidence of the theory of localization because it demonstrated different structures in the brain play different roles. In this case, the hippocampus is responsible for spatial memory skills.

P&B 2 - Using one or more examples, explain effects of neurotransmission on human behaviour.

 Neurotransmission is the process where electrochemical signals communicate between the neurons across the synaptic cleft.
 A neurotransmitter is a chemical messenger that is released at the terminal buttons from vesicles via exocytosis.
 Acetylcholine o Sustaining attention o Arousal and reward o Sensory perception -> decision making o Muscles contraction and motor antiroll o Development of memory in hippocampus (STM to LTM) o Learning o Synaptic branching o Cholinergic system (Ach producing system)-plays a role in Alzheimer's disease

Martinez & Kesner (1991) o ACh plays an important role in spatial memory, attention and learning. o When the rats ran through the maze the first time they formed neuronal connections and a memory was formed. o The increase or decrease of their ACh levels after the first trial impacted on their ability to strengthen and draw on that previous memory. o Highlights the role of ACh in dendritic branching.

Serotonin o Regulates body system
▪ Mood
▪ Sleep
▪ Appetite o Homeostatic o Gastrointestinal system o Arousal levels o Muscle contraction memory/learning

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