This is an extract of our Administrative Rule document, which we sell as part of our Property (Duke Wiener) Outlines collection written by the top tier of Duke University School Of Law students.
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1. Zoning I. Theories of Local Politics a. Pluralism: Politics mediates struggle among self-interested groups for scarce social resources - all interests will be reflected in a decision. b. Republicanism: people do not have predetermined preferences, but instead preferences are formed through public deliberation, with public benefits in mind. c. Public Choice Theory: treats legislation as an economic transaction in which interest groups form the demand side, and legislators form the supply side. The market systematically yields too many laws that are rent-seeking; but too few laws that provide public goods d. Tiebout Hypothesis: Local jurisdictions compete to attract citizens - individuals "vote with their feet" by selecting to live in communities most congenial to their preferences. II. Comparison of the theories a. Pluralism sees politics as market that works well within jurisdictions - a market for voice of different interest groups. b. Public Choice sees politics as market that works badly - free rider problems, special interest group deals rather than reflection of larger public interest. c. Republicanism - politics not a market but a discourse/deliberation to shape views, not to compete over views. d. Tiebout - politics is a market, but market is not WITHIN jurisdictions between interest groups but ACROSS jurisdictions. III. Reasons for zoning: a. Externality/Nuisance control: Zoning allows residents to preserve the statuts quo more effectively than would either nuisance law or law of servitudes. Zoning also protects the neighborhood from negative externalities. (Mandelker) b. Consumer Surplus (personhood, norms): Zoning protects a homeowner's consumer surplus in a home and in the surrounding neighborhood (Karkkainen). i. However - understandable that some residents would want to maintain status quo, but what about other landowners or outsiders who want to develop their own definition of self and sense of place in the world?
c. Redistribution for fairness (equity...?) IV. Zoning power a. Police power b. Application of nuisance law V. Standard State Zoning Enabling Act a. Municipalities can regulate land use to "promote health, safety, morals, or the general welfare of the community." b. Euclid: 1
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