This is an extract of our Diplomatic Relations document, which we sell as part of our International Law I Outlines collection written by the top tier of Georgetown University Law Center students.
The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our International Law I Outlines. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:
Diplomatic Relations A. Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations - Key Provisions i. Preamble (Supp. I - pg. 5) a) "[T]he rules of customary international law should continue to govern questions not expressly regulated by the provisions of the present Convention."
?????NOTE: WHERE a nation is not a signer to the Convention, the argument to make is that the Convention is the best indication of International Law. ii. Article 2 (Supp. I - pg. 6) a) "The establishment of diplomatic relations between States, and of permanent diplomatic missions, takes place by mutual consent."
?????There is no obligation under International Law to conduct diplomatic relations. iii. Article 4 (Supp. I - pg. 6) a) "1. The sending State must make certain that the agrement of the receiving State has been given for the person it proposes to accredit as head of the mission to that State." b) "2. The receiving State is not obliged to give reasons to the sending State for a refusal of agrement." iv. Article 9 (Supp. I - pg. 7) a) (1) "The receiving State may at any time and without having to explain its decision, notify the sending State that the head of the mission or any member of the diplomatic staff of the mission is persona non grata or that any other member of the staff of the mission is not acceptable. In any such case, the sending State shall, as appropriate, either recall the person concerned or terminate his functions with the mission. A person may be declared non grata or not acceptable before arriving in the territory of the receiving State." v. Article 22 (Supp. I - pg. 10) a) (1) "The premises of the mission shall be inviolable." b) (2) "The receiving State is under a special duty to take all reasonable steps to protect the premises of the mission against any intrusion of damage and to prevent any disturbance of the peace of the mission or impairment of its dignity."
? BUT, the violation of International Law by the sending State is not an affirmative defense for the receiving State's failure to take appropriate steps to protect the premises of the mission of the sending State. (See The Diplomatic and Consular Staff Case - pg. 325) c) (3) "The premises of the mission, their furnishings and other property thereon and the means of transport of the mission shall be immune from search, requisition, attachment or execution."
? ALSO, Article 30(1): "The private residence of a diplomatic agent shall enjoy the same inviolability and protection as the premises of the mission" (Supp. I - pg. 12)
?????BUT, the mission is not an extension of the territory of the
sending State. vi. Article 26 (Supp. I - pg. 11) a) "Subject to its laws and regulations concerning zones entry into which is prohibited for reasons of national security, the receiving State shall ensure to all members of the mission freedom of movement and travel in its territory." vii. Article 27 (Supp. I - pg. 11) a) (1) "The receiving State shall permit and protect free communication on the part of the mission for all official purposes. In communicating with the Government and the other missions and consulates of the sending State, wherever situated, the mission may employ all appropriate means, including diplomatic couriers and messages in code or cipher. However, the mission may install and use a wireless transmitter only with the consent of the receiving State." b) (2) "The official correspondence of the mission shall be inviolable. Official correspondence means all correspondence relating to the mission and it functions." viii. Article 29 (Supp. I - pg. 12) a) "The person of a diplomatic agent shall be inviolable. He shall not be liable to any form of arrest or detention. The receiving State shall treat him with due respect and shall take all appropriate steps to prevent any attack on his person, freedom or dignity." ix. Article 30 (Supp. I - pg. 12) a) (1) "The private residence of a diplomatic agent shall enjoy the same inviolability and protection as the premises of the mission" b) (2) "His papers, correspondence and, except as provided in paragraph 3 of article 31, his property, shall likewise enjoy inviolability." x. Article 31 (Supp. I - pg. 12) a) (1) "A diplomatic agent shall enjoy immunity from the criminal jurisdiction of the receiving State. He shall also enjoy immunity from its civil and administrative jurisdiction, except in the case of:
? (a) A real action relating to private immovable property situated in the territory of the receiving State, unless he holds it on behalf of the sending State for the purposes of the mission;
? (b) An action relating to succession in which the diplomatic agent is involved as executor, administrator heir or legatee as a private person and not on behalf of the sending State;
? (c) An action relating to any professional or commercial activity exercised by the diplomatic agent in the receiving State outside his official functions."
? BUT, shouldn't be doing this anyhow:
? Article 42 (Supp. I - 17): "A diplomatic agent shall not in the receiving State practice for personal any professional or commercial activity."
? This exception does not apply to the employment of a domestic servant by the diplomat. (See Tabion v. Mufti Supp. I - pg. 30)
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