This is an extract of our Choice Of Organizational Form document, which we sell as part of our Corporations Outlines collection written by the top tier of Georgetown University Law Center students.
The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Corporations Outlines. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:
Choice of Organizational Form A. Formation i. Corporation: Requires formal action with the state (File Articles/Certificate, etc.) ii. General Partnership: Generally created by contract BUT may be formed by operation of law as simply defined as "an association of two or more persons to carry on as co-owners a business for profit" iii. Limited Partnership: Requires the filing with the state of a certificate of partnership setting forth the rights and duties of the partners a) Typically, also execute a written partnership agreement iv. LLC: (1) Requires the filing of articles of organization, (2) ALSO enter into an operating agreement (a.k.a. "regulations" of the LLC), (3) ALSO enter into the "limited liability company agreement" (a.k.a. member control agreement") B. Limited Liability i. Corporation: A shareholder's liability is limited to original investment EXCEPT (1) where the corporation is not properly formed, (2) for unpaid capital contributions that the shareholder has agreed to make, or (3) where the veil of limited liability is pierced for equitable reasons. ii. General Partnership: The partners, as individuals, can be held jointly and severally liable for partnership obligations iii. Limited Partnership: General partners have the same unlimited liability as in the case of a general partnership. Liability of limited partners is limited to the amount of their investment in the partnership UNLESS they "participate" in management a) "Participation" does not include such activities as advising the general partner or voting on certain critical transactions
? NOTE: A limited partnership can be structured such that a corporation is the general partner and the individuals are all limited partners thereby allowing limited liability for all the individuals involved iv. LLC: Limited liability for all members and managers BUT may be liable (1) where the corporation is not properly formed, (2) for unpaid capital contributions, or (3) where the veil of limited liability is pierced for equitable reasons. C. Management i. Corporation: Centralized in the board of directors BUT the board delegates day-to-day operations to officers of whom the board appoints a) By default, in most statutes, directors are elected by a plurality of shares entitled to vote ii. General Partnership: Management authority vested in all the partners iii. Limited Partnership: General partners have responsibility for most management decisions. Limited partners may not participate in management ELSE may lose limited liability iv. LLC a) Member-managed: all members have authority to make management decisions b) Manager-managed: members are not agents of the entity and make only major decisions
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