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Professor Jed Shugerman DUTY Intentional Torts (Vosberg, kick) Dual Intent (Vosberg, kick) Transferred Intent (Talmage, transferred intent w/ stick) Private Necessity (Ploof, boat goes; Vincent, boat stays) Public Necessity (Respublica, house burning error) Consent (Vosberg, kick) Reasonable Care (Vaughn, haystack) Semi-objective Care Child (Roberts, car) Insane (Breunig, Batmobile) Nonfeasance (Hurley, doctor) Misfeasance (Montgomery, ice truck) Special Relationships Negligent Entrustment (Weirum, radio) Landlords (Kline, mugging) Psychiatrists (Tarasof, Berkeley psycho) Premises Trespassers Licensee (Robert Addie, att. nuisance) Business Invitees (Dalury, ski crash) California Rule (Rowland, 3-part test) Statutes Clarification of RC (Martin, headlights) Private COA (Uhr, scoliosis) Comm. Cars. / Innkeepers (Andrews, United Airlines) Strict Liability ADAs Ultrahazardous (Rylands, reservoir) ADA (Cyanamid, train toxins) RST / RTT (main factor: great harm) Unexpected ADAs Third-Parties (Yukon, unexpected thieves) Abnormally Sensitive (Madsen, minks) Animals & Fires (Epstein 968, must know) Nuisances (Boomer, pollution) Coming to the Nuisance (Spur Inds., feedlot) Product Liability Manufacture (Escola, Coca-Cola) Design Risk-Utility (Denny, Ford Bronco) Consum. Exp. (Castro, QVC netwrk pan) Warning (MacDonald, over-cluttered warning) Vicarious Liability "Frolics" (Bushey, US sailor) Intentional (Lisa M., related to work OK) Hostile Environment (Burlington, sex harass.) Negligent Hiring (Schechter, hiring criminals)
PURPOSES OF TORT LAW Corrective Justice: Victims should be made whole by matching with the people who harmed them. Individual fairness. Redress of Social Grievances / Social Justice: Victims should have their day in court, and should be able to put authorities on trial. Collective Justice / Optimal Deterrence: Best cost avoiders should be deterred from causing socially unacceptable harms. Compensation / Loss Distribution: Victims should be compensated for their losses by groups most responsible or able to do so. Judicial Economy : The court system should dissuade unnecessary or frivolous lawsuits. BREACH Negligence (Generally) (Brown, stick; Robinson, hole) Foreseeability (Blyth, extreme frost) Balance (Cooley, telephone explosion) BPL (Carroll Towing, bargee) Custom (The T.J. Hooper, radios evidence but not dispositive) Doctors (FFTL, dispositive) Statutes (Gorris, sheep, harm within the statute) Exceptions (Tedla, walking on wrong side) Internal Regulations (Lucy Webb, not neg. per se) Res Ipsa Loquitur (Byrne, barrel; Colmenares, escalator) Multiple Ds (Ybarra, doctors) Utmost Care (Andrews, United Airlines) CAUSE-IN-FACT But-For Causation (Grimstad, life preserver) Insult to Injury (Haft, no lifeguard; "stick it to breacher") Substantial Factor (Zuchowicz, FDA overdose) Uncertainty (Reynolds, staircase) Lost Chance (Herskovitz, "dead man walking") Prob. Fut. Consequences (Jackson, asbestosis; 50%) Joint-Several Liability (Kingston, train fire) Alternative Causation (Summers, hunters) Enterprise Liability (Hall, blasting caps) Market-Share Liability (Skipworth, lead poisoning) PROXIMATE CAUSATION Foreseeability (Palsgraf, fireworks and trains) Harm-within-the-Risk (Berry, speeding train hit tree) Substantial Factor (Kinsman, ship creating dam) Directness (Polemis, boat board blowup) Heightened Risk (Marshall, stalled driver hit by
Th) 3rd Party Harm (Wagon Mound, oil fire; Watson, train fire) 3rd Party Rescue (Wagner, train cliff diver) DEFENSES Comparative Negligence (Yellow Cab, speeding car &
neg. cab) Intentional Torts (Morgen, contribution by P
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