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Property Outline

Acquisition of Property By First Possession...................................................................................7
Acquisition by Discovery............................................................................................................8
Johnson v. M'Intosh (Acquisition by Conquest).....................................................................8
Pierson v. Post.........................................................................................................................9
Acquisition by Capture................................................................................................................9
Ghen v. Rich............................................................................................................................9
Keeble v. Hickeringill..............................................................................................................9
Popov v. Hayashi...................................................................................................................10
Acquisition by Find...................................................................................................................10
Finder Hypos.........................................................................................................................11
Armory v. Delamirie..............................................................................................................12
Hannah v. Peel.......................................................................................................................12
McAvoy v. Medina................................................................................................................13
Acquistion by Gift.....................................................................................................................13
Gift Hypos.............................................................................................................................14
Gruen v. Gruen......................................................................................................................14
Adverse Possession for Real Property.......................................................................................15
Tacking between two Adverse Possessors............................................................................16
Manillo v. Gorski...................................................................................................................16
Innocent Improvers and Adverse Possession........................................................................17
Disabilities and Adverse Possession......................................................................................17
Disability and Adverse Possession Hypo..............................................................................18
Adverse Possession for Personal Property................................................................................18
O'Keeffe v. Snyder - Supreme Court of NJ...........................................................................18
Acquisition by Creation.............................................................................................................19
What is a patent?....................................................................................................................19
What is a Trademark?............................................................................................................21
Patent Case Law........................................................................................................................22
Diamond v. Chakrabarty........................................................................................................22
Impression Products v. Lexmark  Patent Exhaustion Doctrine.........................................23
What is a copyright?..................................................................................................................24
Copyright Case Law..................................................................................................................25 1 International News Service v. AP (1918)..............................................................................25
Hot News Doctrine................................................................................................................26
Feist Publications v. Rural Telephone Service Co (1991)- Modicum of Creativity.............26
Property in One's Person...........................................................................................................27
Moore v. Regents of UCal.....................................................................................................27
What Ownership Entails: The Rights to Exclude, Alienate, Abandon, and Destroy....................28
The Right to Exclude and its Limits..........................................................................................28
Jacque v. Steenberg Homes (Wis. 1997) Exclusion permitted..........................................29
State v. Shack (NJ 1971)  Exclusion not permitted...........................................................29
The Public Trust Doctrine.....................................................................................................30
Matthews v. Bay Head Improvement Association (NJ, 1984)  Exclusion not permitted. .30
The Right to Abandon...................................................................................................................31
Hawkins v. Mahoney (MT. 1999) (Abandonment)...............................................................31
Pocono Springs Civic Association v. MacKenzie (PA, 1995)..............................................32
The Right to Destroy.............................................................................................................33
Eyerman v. Mercantile Trust (Missouri, 1975).....................................................................33
In re Estate of Kievernagel (CA, 2008).................................................................................34
Present Possessory Estates.............................................................................................................34
Fee Simple Absolute..................................................................................................................35
Fee Tail..................................................................................................................................36
The Life Estate.......................................................................................................................37
White v. Brown (TN, 1977)...................................................................................................37
Future Interests..........................................................................................................................38
Retained by the Grantor.........................................................................................................38
Held in the Grantee................................................................................................................38
Executory Interests....................................................................................................................40
...................................................................................................................................................41
Defeasible Estates......................................................................................................................41
Types of Defeasible Fee Simple................................................................................................41
Mahrenholz v. County Board of Trustees (1981)..................................................................42
Trusts.........................................................................................................................................43
Rule Furthering Marketability by Destroying Contingent Future Interests...............................43
The Rule Against Perpetuities...............................................................................................43
Jee v. Audley.........................................................................................................................44 2 Class Gifts and RAP..................................................................................................................45
Future Interests in Transferors; Executory Interests Following Defeasible Fees; and Options 46
Leasehold Estates...........................................................................................................................47
Rules Against Waste..............................................................................................................48
Garner v. Gerrish (1984) - Lease for life?............................................................................49
The Tenant Who Defaults..........................................................................................................50
Summary Proceedings - Purpose and Problems...................................................................51
Landlord's Duty to Mitigate if Tenant Abandons or Surrenders...........................................51
Sommer v. Kridel (1977).......................................................................................................51
The Landlord Who Defaults......................................................................................................52
Village Commons v. MCPO..................................................................................................54
Hilder v. St Peter (1984)........................................................................................................54
Prohibition on Unlawful Discrimination by Landlords.............................................................55
Federal Fair Housing Act of 1968.........................................................................................56
Co-Ownership Interests.................................................................................................................58
Common Law Concurrent Interests...........................................................................................58
Severance of Joint Tenancies.....................................................................................................60
Riddle v. Harmon (CA, 1980)...............................................................................................60
Harms v. Sprague (IL, 1984).................................................................................................61
Severing in Modern Courts....................................................................................................61
Partition......................................................................................................................................63
Delfino v. Vealencis (CT, 1980)............................................................................................64
Transfers of Land...........................................................................................................................64
Marital Interests.........................................................................................................................64
Termination of Marriage by Divorce.....................................................................................65
In re Marriage of Graham (1978)..........................................................................................65
Termination of Marriage by Death........................................................................................66
Introduction to Buying and Selling Real Estate........................................................................67
The Contract of Sale and the Deed............................................................................................68
Statute of Frauds in Real Property Contracts............................................................................68
Estoppel Exception to Writing Requirement.........................................................................68
Hickey v. Green (MA, 1982).................................................................................................68
Broker's Duties..........................................................................................................................69
Seller's Duties............................................................................................................................70 3 Marketable Title - So Buyer isn't Buying a Lawsuit............................................................70
Duties to Disclose Defects.....................................................................................................70
Lohmeyer v. Bower (KS, 1951)............................................................................................71
Stambovsky v. Ackley (NY, 1991)........................................................................................73
Johnson v. Davis (FL, 1985)..................................................................................................73
Remedies for Breach of Sales Contract.................................................................................74
Equitable Conversion.............................................................................................................75
The Deed................................................................................................................................76
Types of Deeds......................................................................................................................76
Financing Real Estate Transactions and the Financial Crisis....................................................77
The Basics..............................................................................................................................77
Deficiency Judgments............................................................................................................78
Evolving (Devolving?) Mortgage System.............................................................................79
The Mortgage Crisis and the Great Recession......................................................................79
Another Major Cause of the Crisis: Securitization................................................................79
Responses to the Crisis..........................................................................................................80
Commonwealth v. Fremont Investment and Loan (MA, 2008)............................................80
US Bank v. Ibanez (MA, 2010).............................................................................................81
Land Use Control...........................................................................................................................82
Judicial Land Use Controls: The Law of Nuisance...................................................................82
Private Nuisance....................................................................................................................84
Morgan v. High Penn Oil Co (NC, 1953)..............................................................................84
Boomer v. Atlantic Cement Co (NY, 1970)..........................................................................85
Public Nuisance.....................................................................................................................86
Spur Industries v. Del Webb (AZ, 1972)...............................................................................86
Nuisance Law and Environmental Concerns.........................................................................87
Private Land Use Controls - The Law of Servitude (work through easement problems pg. 484)
...................................................................................................................................................88
Easements..................................................................................................................................89
Affirmative Appurtenant Easements.....................................................................................91
Willard v. First Church (CA, 1972).......................................................................................91
Exceptions to the SoF Requirement for Affirmative Easements - P.IL.N.E.I!.....................91
Easements Implied From Prior Use (Quasi-Easement).........................................................93
Van Sandt v. Royster (KS, 1938)..........................................................................................93
Licenses.................................................................................................................................94 4 Easements by Strict Necessity...............................................................................................95
Easement by Prescription......................................................................................................95
Covenants Running with the Land - Hard to Enforce Because of Privity Requirement..........96
Real Covenants & Equitable Servitudes................................................................................97
Burden Running and Benefit Running Hypos.......................................................................99
Restatement Approach - No Court has Adopted...................................................................99
Equitable Servitudes Created...............................................................................................100
Tulk v. Moxhay (1848)........................................................................................................100
Real Covenant Analysis- Touch and Concern & Privity....................................................100
Neponsit v. Emigrant (NY, 1938)........................................................................................100
Legislative Land Use Controls: The Law of Zoning...............................................................102
Village of Euclid v. Amber Realty Co (1926) - ON ITS FACE.........................................105
Nectow v. City of Cambridge - AS APPLIED...................................................................106
Household Composition Zoning..........................................................................................106
Village of Belle Terre v. Boraas (1974)..............................................................................106
Ways to Get Around Zoning................................................................................................108
Eminent Domain, Categorical Rules and Just Compensation.................................................108
Categorical Takings.................................................................................................................111
Loretto v. Teleprompter Manhattan (1982).........................................................................111
Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council (U.S. 1992)........................................................112
Public Use and Judicial Takings..........................................................................................113
Kelo v. City of New London (U.S. 2005)............................................................................113
Exactions..................................................................................................................................114
Implicit Takings.......................................................................................................................114
Hadacheck v. Sebastian (1915)............................................................................................115
Eminent Domain, Just Compensation, and Ad Hoc Balancing...............................................116
Pennsylvania Coal v. Mahon (1922) - Taking....................................................................116
Average Reciprocity of Advantage.....................................................................................117
How is Hadacheck (nuisance regulation ≠ taking) distinguishable from Mahon (nuisance =
taking)?................................................................................................................................117
Penn Central v. City of NY (1978) - NOT a taking............................................................117
Conceptual Severance - If you Sever, More Likely to Find a Taking................................118

Big Themes of Property:

5 1. Property as A Bundle of Sticks a. Destroy: Eyerman  cf. Kievernagel b. Abandon: Hawkins v. Mahoney  cf. Pocono Springs c. Exclude: Jacque v. Steenberg  cf. Stack v. Shack d. Permanent invasion NOT ok  Loretto e. Alienate (Transfer)
i. Cannot alienate a life estate in fee simple (alienating a life estate is a wrongful transfer, reverts back to grantor)
ii. Can alienate all FSs, and all determinable fees iii. Cannot alienate your body - Moore iv. Can alienate an easement, but you cannot sell it v. Impression Products v. Lexmark  A patentee's decision to sell a product exhausts all of its patent rights in that item

2. Possession is 9/10ths of the Law (Or 11 points in the law, according to Colley Cibber)
a. Armory, Hannah v. Peel  Law of finders: the finders interest is good against the entire world except the true owner b. Manillo v. Gorski , Harold v. Kunto (taking in AP), O'Keefe v. Snyder  Adverse
Possession i. Disability: infancy, insanity, and imprisonment c. Acquisition by capture (ratione soli)
i. Johnson v. McIntosh ii. Popov (baseball - person thwarted by unlawful conduct has pre-possessory interest, must have complete control over the ball to have possession)
iii. Keeble (ducks)
iv. Ghen v. Rich (whale - taking industry accepted steps to possess the whale enough)
v. Fugitive resources - The rule of capture quickly came to be applied to the acquisition of all sorts of fugitive (moving) resources, including oil and gas. It led to preoccupation with capture technologies and excessive ecological exploitation compromising many natural habitats.

3. Property Rewards the Productive Use of Land a. Eminent domain b. Zoning c. Adverse possession d. Waste doctrine (permissive, voluntary, ameliorative) - life tenants may not engage in any of these kinds of waste e. Delfino  Partition in kind f. Incentive vs. regulation schemes to control environmental pollution - incentive schemes might help reach the optimal level of pollution (sources with low control costs will control to greater degrees than sources facing higher costs - result is total outlay for given level of quality will be minimized) See. Acid Rain Provisions of 1990 Clean Air
Act

4. Property Endeavors to Honor the Parties' Reasonable Expectations a. Kievernagel - guy wanted his sperm destroyed b. Ghen v. Rich - no one would engage in a venture if the fruits of his labor could be intercepted by a chance finder i. Cf. norms of hunters (to respect hot pursuit) ignored in Pierson c. Willard - grantor's intent was that she clearly wanted the church to have an easement, so court honored this expectation over and above the age old stranger to the deed rule d. Delfino  Partition in kind - people will not have incentive to build, develop if they fear partition in sale

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10. e. IP rights - people believe when they invest intellectual labor in an end they will be able to derive profits from it f. Covenant of Quiet Enjoyment - Implied Warranty of Habitability g. Implied Warranty of Marketability
Property's Common Law Rules Are Largely the Product of an Agrarian Culture, When Land Was
Paramount and Structures Atop the Land Were Incidental a. PA Coal v. Mahon  even though subsidience the higher value use of the coal company of the support parcel outweighed the homeowner's interest i. Cf. Keystone b. Primary modern forms of servitudes (easements, real covenants, equitable servitudes), are largely products of closing of common fields when suddenly rights of way were needed
First in Time is First in Right a. Pierson v. Post, Ghen v. Rich, Keeble, Popov, Peel i. Antithetical is Adverse Possession b. Acquisition by discovery - sovereign rights c. IP Law - protections of the first discoverers of intellectual property i. Cf. Fair use exceptions that limit copyright law d. Coming to the nuisance
One Should Not Use One's interest in Property in Such a Way as to Injure the Property Interests of Another a. Eyerman - missing front tooth b. Waste - for life estate/ concurrent tenancies c. Keeble - shooting gun into neighbor's decoy pond to scare away ducks d. Private Nuisance/Public Nuisance (Hadacheck)
e. Restrictive Covenants/Equitable Servitudes
The Doctrine of Waste Applies Whenever More than One Entity has an Interest in Blackacre a. Doctrine of waste in tenant liability and life estates, landlord/tenant law, concurrent interests b. Idle land is land wasted: adverse possession
Impose Liability on the Cheapest Cost Avoider a. O'Keefe - duty to use reasonable diligence to re-acquire property b. Landlord duty to mitigate - Sommer v. Kridel (landlord failed to mitigate after army guy sent letter saying his engagement was broken off)
c. Fair Housing Act d. Coming to the nuisance - Spurr e. Fraudulent deeds: subsequent bona fide purchaser from the grantee who is unaware of the fraud prevails over the grantee - as between two innocent parties, one of whom must suffer by the act of the fraudulent third party, the law generally places the loss on the person who could have prevented the loss to the other. (In order to protect market liquitidy)
Neighborliness Matters a. Keeble - shooting gun into neighbor's decoy pond to scare away ducks b. Private Nuisance law c. Public Nuisance Law d. Easement by estoppel, easement by prescription e. Real covenants, equitable servitudes f. Zoning law, neighborliness

Acquisition of Property By First Possession

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