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Rape 1) History a) Blackstone: "Carnal knowledge of a woman forcibly and against her will." b) Sir Matthew Hale: marital rape exception i) Justifications (1)Act of marriage makes this not rape - mutual matrimonial consent and contract cannot be retracted. Sex is one of the things she agrees to. (2)Less harm in the autonomy category because in marrying him, she's said "I'm okay with having sex with him." He can be charged with assault instead. (3)Chattel (4)Marriages are private and we do not want the law/government to delve into it. Instead of reconciling naturally, people will run to the court houses and accuse eachother of rape. ii) People v. Liberta (1984) pg 357: spouses living separately. District court found for wife because NY statute differentiated between married couples living together and those not living together. Husband said distinction was unconstitutional. (1)Held: There is no marital exception to rape law. (a) Marriage license is not a contract that forces sex onto wife. Unconscionable. (b)There's something inherently different from assault in rape, otherwise we wouldn't have rape law. (c) Totally outdated (d)If there's violence to this degree, there's nothing to be reconciled c) Statutory rape: "woman child" under 10 d) Social Harm: property rights i) Deuteronomy 22:28-29-Man rapes = give money to father to make things right. Not permitted to divorce. e) NY Penal law = female person = not married to actor f) Maryland Code = rape = only vaginal intercourse g) Property offense - Traditional view (crime of violence) - community harm/autonomy/integrity/access/stigma attached to babies born out of rape i) If worried more about violence: focus on FORCE element ii) If worried about autonomy: focus on other elements iii) Changing to "sexual assault" to get rid of gender-default baggage, to get rid of perception that only vaginal intercourse qualifies, women are more comfortable identifying with non-rape label, lessens idea of force requirement 2) MPC Rape & Related Offenses SS213.1 i) 1) A male who has sexual intercourse with a female not his wife is guilty of rape if (1) (a) he compels her to submit by force or threat of imminent death, seriously bodily injury, extreme pain or kidnapping, to be inflicted on anyone, or (2) (b) he has substantially impaired her power to appraise or control her conduct by administering or employing without her knowledge drugs, intoxicants, or other means for the purpose of preventing resistance; or (3) (c) The female is unconscious; or (4) (d) The female is less than 10 years old (a) No statutory rape for model penal code---unless 10 years old or younger. So if the child is above 10, you have to go through all the elements of a crime. 1
(5) Mens Rea- recklessness because it doesn't include a specific mens rea requirement. 3) Comparison to Common Law: a) Similarities: i) Gender-specific: i.e., legally only males can commit the offense and only females are victims. ii) Upholds Marital Rape Exemption: Code affirms the general principle that nonconsensual intercourse with a spouse is not rape; though many states have chosen not to adopt this view. b) Differences: i) The term "sexual intercourse" is defined broadly to include genital, oral, and anal sexual penetration by the male of the female. SS213.0(2) ii) More emphasis on actions of D as opposed to V: Rape is defined in terms of the male's acts of aggression or overreaching, rather than in the negative terms of the female's lack of consent. (1)Note: By shifting the focus to the male's conduct, MPC seeks to avoid the common law's emphasis on objective proof of the victim's lack of consent. In particular, MPC does not require proof of resistance by the victim, although the Commentary recognizes that evidence of resistance may sometimes be required to convince the jury that the sexual act was compelled. iii)Divides Rape into felony degrees; (1) First and Second degree felony rape under MPC require higher level of fear/force; (2)Third degree felony rape standard for force in gross sexual imposition is same standard of force for common law. 4) Looking at the victim a) Likely to know their attacker b) Rape often goes unrecorded. Some who record under the legal standard, do not consider the act to be rape. i) Hard psychologically (afraid of blame) ii) Societal ideas about sex - men act aggressively iii) Shame and denial c) Race i) Criticism regarding degree to which claims from women of color have gone uninvestigated ii) Criticism regarded degree to which rape laws target black men in particular d) Response i) Based on particular male notions on how someone is supposed to respond to an assault 5) Force & Lack of consent 2
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