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AGENCY ADMINISTRATION a. Congress i. The Nondelegation Doctrine
Schecter Poultry v. U.S.: Congress passed the NIRA, delegating to industry groups the authority to write codes of fair competition, labor standards, wages, hours worked, etc. Where the industry group fails to submit a code to the President or he refuses to approve one, he may draft one himself. Held, NIRA violates the nondelegation doctrine, because its delegation of rulemaking authority was not bound by an intelligible principle. Industrial Union Department v. American Petroleum Institute: OSHA statute mandates that the agency assure "as far as possible . . . safe and healthful working conditions." It also authorizes OSHA to establish "reasonably necessary" standards for toxic materials to ensure "to the extent feasible" that no worker will suffer material impairment. OSHA identifies benzene as a carcinogen applies its general policy of restricting benzene to 1 ppm or lower, even though they only have data showing health risks above 10 ppm. Held, OSHA violated the statutory mandate to adopt a reasonable standard because it did not investigate whether a higher standard may have been reasonable. The court holds OSHA is limited to adopting only those standards which are "reasonable and appropriate."
? Note that this ruling involved application of the constitutional avoidance doctrine---the court avoided answering whether the OSH Act lacked an "intelligible principle" by finding the agency in violation of the Act by another route. Whitman v. American Trucking: AT sues the EPA over its rule restricting ozone to .08 ppm instead of . 09 ppm. The Clean Air Act authorizes the EPA to pass air quality standards reasonable necessary to promote public health. AT alleges a violation of the ND doctrine, alleging that this is too broad a statutory mandate to be circumscribed by an intelligible principle. Held, the statutory mandate is not too broad. A broad statutory mandate is not synonymous with an excessive delegation of authority. The agency is still bound to push for lower ozone standards---that is, it is not free to work contrary to public health. In the past, the court has found an intelligible principle even where the only such principle be that the agency pass rules "in the public interest."
ii. Legislative Control of Agencies?Legislative Veto: Formerly, Congress reserved the right to veto certain agency actions unilaterally (usually by a vote of one house). This was found to violate bicameralism and presentment, as required by U.S. Const. Art. I, SS 7. See INS v. Chadha. Other powers over agencies which Congress retains: o Pass new legislation o Control appropriations o Eliminate a particular office When it creates the agency, Congress exercises control by: o Circumscribing the agency's authority and objectives (intelligible principle) o Requiring the agency to satisfy various procedural standards (e.g., reports to Congress, studies, etc.)
INS v. Chadha: Statute permits the INS to suspect deportation of a foreign citizen on humanitarian grounds. However, the agency is required to submit its decision to Congress. A vote of one house can "veto" the agency's decision and reinstate deportation. Held, the legislative veto is unconstitutional, because it violates the requirements of bicameralism and presentment (Art. I, SS 7) which Congress must satisfy in order to make law. Bowsher v. Synar: The Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act requires the OMB and CBO to independently estimate the federal deficit for the coming year. After reconciling their figures, the Comptroller General then gives a report to the president detailing cuts he is required to make. Now, while the CG is appointed
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