This is an extract of our Damages document, which we sell as part of our Long Torts Outline collection written by the top tier of University Of Virginia School Of Law students.
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Damages a.Recoverable Elements of Damages i. Damages are always compensatory
ii. P can recover for future consequences of an injury if he proves that they are "reasonably probable", but an award cannot be based on mere conjecture or speculation
1. P must be able to prove that an injury will keep him from working
2. Three Usual Components of Compensatory Damages
3. Medical Expenses: P is entitled to compensation for all medical costs of diagnosing and treating the injuries resulting from the tort, past and future. MUST prove they are reasonably probably, only get one recovery
4. Lost Earnings and Earning Capacity:
Past income losses due to injury are recoverable, and lost future earning potential is also recoverable
5. Pain and Suffering: Includes physical pain from the impact of an accident, but it also includes on-going pain from a wound, or a long term discomfort from a permanent condition. It also includes the pain of medical procedures to treat the injuries. Also includes many other types of mental suffering such as humiliation, anguish, embarrassment, fright associated with traumatic accident etc. Thus, pain and suffering is a catch all term that can encompass almost any kind of subjective reaction to the accident or its consequences.
a. Highly subjective, and jury must simply pick a number based on the sense of severity of the loss the P has suffered
i. Loss of Enjoyment of Life: Not being able to do the things you love anymore; included in Pain and Suffering calculation, one award McDougald v. Garber iii. If P Dies, 2 Actions May be Brought:
1. Survival Action: P's continuance of his action, typically contains all out-ofpocket expenses up to P's death (goes to his estate)
2. Wrongful death: Family's action, usually close relatives. Usually in terms of financial support that P would have provided (negated if either P or decedent were contributory negligent) a. **In order to have full deterrence, you need both
iv. Damages that are recoverable
1. Property Damages: When property is damaged: a. Loss of value of the property, or the cost to repair, whichever is less b. Lost profits from property c. NO PAIN AND SUFFERING FOR PROPERTY DAMAGE (some courts allow exceptions for pets)
2. Personal Injury (Special Damages) a. "Special", or "out-of-pocket" losses: medical bills, lost earnings, lost earning capacity Page 1 of 3
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